Risk Factors

The specific risk factors are unknown.

Studies show that HE affects men and women, and strikes people from every age group (including children and seniors) and every ethnicity, in every part of the world.  However, females do predominate, as they do in most autoimmune diseases. 12

There have been a handful of studies describing the presentation of HE/SREAT in patients with Down Syndrome.3 This is not to suggest that individuals with Down Syndrome have a higher likelihood of developing HE/SREAT, however, a sudden or acute onset of psychiatric symptoms such as hallucinations or psychosis in the presence of elevated anti-thyroid titers may warrant increased suspicion in those with Down Syndrome.


1 “Hashimoto encephalopathy: A study of the clinical profile, radiological and electrophysiological correlation in a Tertiary Care Center in South India”
S.T. Ngo, F.J. Steyn, P.A. McCombe

2 “Gender differences in autoimmune disease”
S.T. Ngo, F.J. Steyn, P.A. McCombe

3 “Hashimoto Encephalopathy and Down Syndrome”
Amy Brodtmann, MD, PhD
Arch Neurol.
2009 May, Vol.66, No.5, pg 663-666.
DOI: 10.1001/archneurol.2009.45.


Last edited by Web Team on June 20th, 2016