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Risk Factors

The specific risk factors are unknown.

Studies show that HE affects men and women, and strikes people from every age group (including children and seniors) and every ethnicity, in every part of the world.  However, females do predominate, as they do in most autoimmune diseases. 12

There have been a handful of studies describing the presentation of HE/SREAT in patients with Down Syndrome.3 This is not to suggest that individuals with Down Syndrome have a higher likelihood of developing HE/SREAT, however, a sudden or acute onset of psychiatric symptoms such as hallucinations or psychosis in the presence of elevated anti-thyroid titers may warrant increased suspicion in those with Down Syndrome.


1 “Hashimoto encephalopathy: A study of the clinical profile, radiological and electrophysiological correlation in a Tertiary Care Center in South India”
S.T. Ngo, F.J. Steyn, P.A. McCombe

2 “Gender differences in autoimmune disease”
S.T. Ngo, F.J. Steyn, P.A. McCombe

3 “Hashimoto Encephalopathy and Down Syndrome”
Amy Brodtmann, MD, PhD
Arch Neurol.
2009 May, Vol.66, No.5, pg 663-666.
DOI: 10.1001/archneurol.2009.45.


Last edited by Web Team on June 20th, 2016

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AE Alliance
"The Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance promotes collaboration to improve care, find a cure and create community so that no one faces autoimmune encephalitis alone.

The Encephalitis Society
"The Encephalitis Society is an International organization providing information and support for all causes of Encephalitis."

Encephalitis Global
"Encephalitis Global is a U.S.A. 501(c)(3) non-profit organization formed in 2005 as an alliance connecting encephalitis survivors and caregivers around the world."

Scientific literature is growing at a rate of more than 2 new articles every single minute. It is impossible for scientists to consume and understand the rapidly expanding ocean of biomedical literature. You can help biomedical researchers find the information they need to discover cures faster.
"Connecting Rare Disease Patients Globally"
"Alone we are rare. Together we are strong.®"

Contact a Family
"For families with disabled children."

Madison's Foundation Provides information about rare diseases and connects parents whose children have the same rare disease.

NIH Health Hotline
Toll-free numbers from the National Library of Medicine's Health Hotlines Database.

HE Notebook - Wordpress Site
A great blog of an HE patient with a trove of information, personal stories, and links to medical studies.