A video made by a young woman in Australia with HE/SREAT for the 2016 World Encephalitis Day contest held by the Encephalitis Society. We are happy to share that Lizzie Kehr’s video won the short film contest with over 500 votes.
You can see other entries into the contest by visit the Encephalitis Society website, http://www.encephalitis.info.
confusion and disorientation
concentration and memory problems
speech difficulties (usually transient)
muscle jerking (myoclonus)
impaired coordination and balance (ataxia)
seizures or seizure-like events
partial paralysis (transient)
Articles on Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Published in 2010
New Daily Persistent Headache As A Presenting Symptom Of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy
Dr. Daniel E Jacome
WebmedCentral NEUROLOGY 2010;1(10):WMC00960
Successful response to intravenous immunoglobulin as rescue therapy in a patient with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.
R. Cornejo, P Venegas, D Goñi, A Salas, and C Romero
BMJ Case Rep. 2010 Dec 29
Paediatric Hashimoto encephalopathy, refractory epilepsy and immunoglobulin treatment – unusual case report and review of the literature
Berger I, Castiel Y, Dor T.
Acta Paediatr. 2010 Dec, 99(12):1903-5.
A series report of autoimmune hypothyroidism associated with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: an under diagnosed clinical entity with good prognosis.
HK Nayak, MK Daga, R Kumar, SK Garg, N Kumar, PK Mohanty PK
BMJ Case Rep. 2010 Nov 23;2010. pii: bcr0120102630.
Hashimoto encephalopathy: clinical and MRI improvement following high-dose corticosteroid therapy.
T Chang, MT Riffsy, PS Gunaratne
Neurologist. 2010 Nov;16(6):394-6.
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy presenting with neurocognitive symptoms: a case report
Carlos Canelo-Aybar, David Loja-Oropeza, Jose Cuadra-Urteaga and Franco Romani-Romani
Journal of Medical Case Reports 2010, 4:337 (October 25, 2010)
Autoimmune dementia: clinical course and predictors of immunotherapy response
Eoin P. Flanagan, MBBCh, Andrew McKeon, MBBCh, Vanda A. Leonnon, MD, PhD, Bradley F. Boeve, MD, Max R. Trenerry, PhD, K. Meng Tan, MD, Daniel A. Drubach, MD, Keith A. Josephs, MD, Jeffrey W. Britton, MD, Jayawant N. Mandrekar, PhD, Val Lowe, MD, Joseph E. Parisi, MD, and Sean J. Pittock, MD.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 October; Volume 85 , Issue 10 pp. 881–897
Electrophysiological tests in a case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy
S Shibayama, A Igaki, M Kuroda, M Honnda, S Fujii, Y Wada, K Inuzumi, M Takeda, M Koshiba
Rinsho Byori. 2010 Oct;58(10):986-9.
Hashimoto encephalopathy with fulminant myocarditis.
M Podberezin, MN Meriggioli, A Locante, A Voros, T Valyi-Nagy, A Kajdacsy-Balla
Pathol Res Pract. 2010 Oct 15;206(10):720-2.
Clinical Reasoning: A 9-year-old girl with seizures and encephalopathy
Thy P. Nguyen and Lisa M. El-Hakam
Neurology. 2010 June 1; 74(22): e97–e100
Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis presenting with late onset depression.
Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2010 Jul;15(3):196-9.
Steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy associated with antithyroid antibodies
J Spinal Cord Med. 2010 June – Volume 33, Issue 3, pp. 278–280.
Recai Turkoglu, MD and Erdem Tuzun, MD
Steroid responsive encephalopathy in cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a case report and review of evidence for immunosuppressive treatment
Raoul P Kloppenborg, Edo Richard, Marieke ES Sprengers, Dirk Troost, Piet Eikelenboom and Paul J Nederkoorn
Journal of Neuroinflammation: 2010 –Volume 7, p. 18
Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with Graves’ disease: clinical manifestations, follow-up, and outcomes
Gianluca Tamagno, Yahya Celik, Rafael Simó, Marcel Dihné, Kazumi Kimura, Giorgio Gelosa, Byung I Lee, Caroline Hommet and Giovanni Murialdo
BMC Neurology: 2010 – 10:27
Hashimoto encephalopathy in a preschool girl.
M. Castro-Gago, C. Gómez-Lado, M. Maneiro-Freire, J. Eirís-Puñal, M. Bravo-Mata
Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Feb;42(2):143-6.
Undetected Hashimoto encephalopathy–a diagnostic challenge in child psychiatry and child neurology.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2010 Jan;38(1):21-7. (German)
Clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria and therapy of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: report of two cases.
Mijajlovic M, Mirkovic M, Dackovic J, Zidverc-Trajkovic, J, Sternic N.
J. Neurol Sci: 2010 January 15; 288(1-2):194-6.
Articles on Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Published in 2011
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in children and adolescents.
I. Erol, S. Saygi, F. Alehan
Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Dec;45(6):420-2.
Recurrent partial seizures with ictal yawning as atypical presentation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis)
S. Casciatoa, C. Di Bonaventuraa, L. Lapentaa, J. Fattoucha, G. Ferrazzanoa, M. Fanellaa, F. Di Fabiob, M. Pasquinib, M.A. Amendoleac, M. Manfredia, d, M. Prencipea, A.T. Giallonardoa
Epilepsy & Behavior – December 2011 – Volume 22, Issue 4, pp.799–803
Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) presenting as depression: a case report.
CY Liu, MC Tseng, PH Lin
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 Nov-Dec;33(6):641.e7-9
Infectious disease or Hashimoto’s encephalopathy flares: a case report.
W Huang, C Xia, M Chatham
Seizure, 2011 Nov;20(9):717-9.
Steroid-responsive encephalopathy in autoimmune thyroiditis: clinical spectrum and MRI observations in three cases
K Dinkar, Sanjib Sinha, AB Taly, PS Bindu, RD Bharath
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology: 2011 – Volume : 14 – Issue : 3, pp. 205-207
Central nervous system vasculitis with positive antithyroid antibodies in an adolescent boy.
Sarah L Tsai, Evan C Lewis, Erick Sell, Sharon Whiting
Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Sep ;45 (3):189-92
Spontaneous Remission of Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in a Patient with Graves’ Disease: A Rare Occurrence in a Rare Clinical Picture
Y Elfaki, D O’Shea, and G Tamagno
Int J Endocrinol Metab. September 2011;9(4):373-6.
Non-convulsive status epilepticus of frontal origin as the first manifestation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.
G Monti, M Pugnaghi, A Ariatti, L Mirandola, G Giovannini, S Scacchetti, P Nichelli, S Meletti
Epileptic Disord. 2011 Sep;13(3):253-8.
Abstract / Full Text Available Free:
Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: Systematic Review of the Literature and an Additional Case
Narriane Chaves P. de Holanda, M.D.; Denise Dantas de Lima, M.D.; Taciana Borges Cavalcanti, M.D.; Cynthia Salgado Lucena, M.D.; Francisco Bandeira, M.D., Ph.D.
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011;23:384-390.
Steroid-responsive encephalopathy and autoimmune thyroiditis in a young boy.
SD Shah, H Murali
Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Aug;45(2):132-4.
Steroid-responsive Hashimoto encephalopathy mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Santoro D, Colombo I, Ghione I, Peverelli L, Bresolin N, Sciacco M, Prelle A.
Neurol Sci. – Aug 2011 – Vol. 32, Issue 4, pp. 719-22
A Methodology for Assessing Treatment Response in Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: A Case Study Demonstrating Repeated Computerized Neuropsychological Testing
Brian L. Brooks, PhD, Karen M. Barlow, MB, ChB, MRCPCH
Journal of Child Neurology June 2011 vol. 26 no. 6 786-791
Recurrent Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, showing spontaneous remission: a case report.
L Li, Zheng FP, Wang G, Li H.
Intern Med. 2011;50(12):1309-12. Epub 2011 Jun 15.
Abstract / Full Text Available Free:
Why the confusion in Hashimoto’s encephalopathy?Bodiabaduge AP Jayasekera, Michael Anthony McShane, Prem Roy,and Geetha AnandBMJ Case Rep. 2011; 2011: bcr0320114020. Published online 2011 June 16.
Progressive impairment of cognition and motor function: Hashimoto encephalopathy
Peter Tzakas and Sze Wan Sit
CMAJ. 2011 May 17; 183(8): E495–E497
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: a long-lasting remission induced by intravenous immunoglobulins.
Drulović J, Andrejević S, Bonaci-Nikolić B, Mijailović V.
Vojnosanit Pregl. 2011 May; Volume 68 – Issue 5 – pp. 452-4
A case of Hashimoto encephalopathy: clinical manifestation, imaging, pathology, treatment, and prognosis.
W Zhao, J Li, J Wang, Y Guo, H Tuo, Z Kang, B Jiang, R Wang, D Wang
Can J Neurol Sci. 2011 May ; 38 (3):404-10
Tremor and Myoclonus Heralding Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy
K. Gücüyener , A. Serdaroğlu, A. Bideci, Y. Yazman, A.S. Soysal, P. Cinaz
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, April 2011, Vol. 13, Issue 8, 1137-1141 (originally published 2000; updated)
Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) or Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: a case and review.
SW Lee, S. Donlon, JP Caplan.
Psychosomatics. 2011 Mar-Apr; Volume 52 – Issue 2 – pp. 99-108.
Time for the endocrinologists to expand their awareness of and contribution to the diagnosis and management of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease.
G Tamagno, G Gaoatswe
Hormones (Athens). 2011 Jan-Mar;10(1):36-8.
Joana Ramalho, and Mauricio Castillo
Radiology Case Reports (Online) 2011;6:445 (January 2011)
Presenile dementia: a case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.
CS Chong, JL Leung, IH Wong, PW Ng, MY Miao
East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;21(1):32-6.
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in the setting of subclinical hypothyroidism
Vasile M Bota, Dominic F Corrigan
International Journal of Case Reports and Images, 2011 – Volume 2 – Issue 4 – pp. 19-22
More precise definition of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease
Acta Paedriactica: Volume 100, Issue 1, pages 5–6, January 2011 (Reader’s Forum)
By subscription or purchase only:
Manic Symptoms Associated With Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: Response to Corticosteroid Treatment
Shuai-Ting Lin, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Pinchen Yang, Cheng-Chung Chen
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011;23:E20-E21 (Letter).
Articles on Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Published in 2012
Paediatric autoimmune encephalopathies: clinical features, laboratory investigations and outcomes in patients with or without antibodies to known central nervous system autoantigens
Yael Hacohen, Sukhvir Wright, Patrick Waters, Shakti Agrawal, Lucinda Carr, Helen Cross, Carlos De Sousa, Catherine DeVile, Penny Fallon, Rajat Gupta, Tammy Hedderly, Elaine Hughes, Tim Kerr, Karine Lascelles, Jean-Pierre Lin, Sunny Philip, Keith Pohl, Prab Prabahkar, Martin Smith, Ruth Williams, Antonia Clarke, Cheryl Hemingway, Evangeline Wassmer, Angela Vincent, Ming J Lim
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 22.
Autoimmune encephalitis in children.
J Child Neurol. 2012 Nov;27(11):1460-9. Epub 2012 Aug 29.
T Armangue, M Petit-Pedrol, J Dalmau
Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy as the cause of deteriorating consciousness during treatment of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis from breast cancer
J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 8. [Epub ahead of print]
YH Liang, PF Wu, CH Lin, YS Lu
Extract (first page):
Anti-thyroid antibodies in two patients with subacute dementia, ataxia, and myoclonus
Daniel Kondziella, Klaus Hansen, Teresa Gonzalez, Peter Gideon, Ingelise Christiansen & Finn Sellebjerg
Ugeskr Læger 2012;174(9):577-579 (original in Danish; English translation available online)
A selective memory deficit caused by autoimmune encephalopathy associated with hashimoto thyroiditis.
C Koros, A Economou, G Mastorakos, A Bonakis, N Kalfakis, SG Papageorgiou
Cogn Behav Neurol. 2012 Sep;25(3):144-8.
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy presenting with multiple cranial nerve palsies and hemiparesis: A case report.
Saha S, Gupta RD, Mukherjee A, Singha A, Das D, Roy MK.
International Journal of Case Reports and Images 2012;3(5):31–35
Opsoclonus as a manifestation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.
R Salazar, C Mehta, N Zaher, D Miller D.
J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Aug 10. [Epub ahead of print]
A patient with steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis.
BK Tsang, N Crump, AJ Hughes
J Clin Neurosci 2012 Aug 9.
B B Chaigne, E E Beaufils, Y Y Jouan, J J Magnant, F F Maillot, T T Constans, C C Hommet and K K Mondon
Rev Med Interne 2012 Jul;33(7):390-5
Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with hashimoto thyroiditis.
Pediatric Radiol. July 2012 – Volume 42, Issue 7, pp. 891-3.
P. Zimmermann, E. Stranzinger
Hashimoto encephalopathy presenting as progressive myoclonus epilepsy syndrome
R Arya, V Anand, M Chansoria.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2012 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print]
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy cases: Chinese experience
Yi Tang, Yi Xing, Michael T Lin, Jin Zhang and Jianping Jia
BMC Neurology 24 July 2012, 12:60
Full Text (“provisional pdf” as of 8/27/12):
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: neuropsychological findings.
I. Mazzù, S Mosti, C Caltagirone, GA Carlesimo
Neurol Sci. 2012 Jun;33(3):653-6.
Rituximab therapy in a patient with recurrent Hashimoto’s encephalitis, anti-GAD antibodies and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus
22nd Meeting of the European Neurological Society, Presentation on June 10, 2012 – Movement Disorders
D. Kassar, S. Damodaram, P. Chand, S. Iyadurai
Hashimoto encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy in an Italian adolescent
V Salpietro, V Granata, A Polizzi, K Mankad, S Briuglia, R Gallizzi, G Tortorella, M Ruggieri
The Child Journal of Pediatrics, Vol 1, No. 2, June 2012: 9
Pearls & Oy-sters: Hashimoto encephalopathy
Mitra Afshari, MD, MPH, Zahra S. Afshari, MD and Stephan U. Schuele, MD, MPH
Neurology May 29, 2012 vol. 78 no. 22 e134-e137
Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis presenting as confusion, dysphasia, and myoclonus
S. A. Ryan, C. Kennedy, and H. J. Harrington
Case Reports in Medicine (Hindawi Publishing Corp.): Volume 2012
Gouranga Santra, Dibyendu De, Sibaji Phaujdar, Aniruddha Rudra, Partha Sarathi Dutta
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India – May 2012 – Vol. 60 – pp. 48-50
Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with Graves’ disease
R. Dobrescu, D. Morosanu, S. Jercalau, C. Tiu & C. Badiu
European Society of Endocrinology, Endocrine Abstracts 2012 (May 2012), 29 P1708
Hashimoto Encephalopathy: A Rare Intricate Syndrome
J. Payer, T. Petrovic, L. Lisy, P. Langer
International Journal of Endocrinol Metab. April 2012 – Volume 10, Issue 2 – pp.506-14.
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy presenting with micrographia as a typical feature of parkinsonism.
K K Inoue, J J Kitamura, M M Yoneda, E E Imamura and H H Tokinobu
Neurol Sci. 2012 Apr;33(2):395-7
Autoimmune encephalopathy associated with thyroid autoantibodies as the cause of reversible cognitive impairment
N Maroz, B Nechama, and RD Chow
Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2012, Vol 2, 11453 (April 2012)
Immunopathology of autoantibody-associated encephalitides: clues for pathogenesis
Christian G. Bien, Angela Vincent, Michael H. Barnett, Albert J. Becker, Ingmar Blümcke, Francesc Graus, Kurt A. Jellinger, David E. Reuss, Teresa Ribalta, Jürgen Schlegel, Ian Sutton, Hans Lassmann and Jan Bauer
Oxford Journal: Brain, April 25, 2012 doi:10.1093/brain/aws082
Full text (free text of preliminary version – fee to obtain final article text) :
A case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy presenting with seizures and psychosis.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;55(3):111-3.
Lee MJ, Lee HS, Hwang JS, Jung DE.
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia as the initial symptom of Hashimoto encephalopathy.
Ming-Yuan MY Liu, She-Qing SQ Zhang, Yong Y Hao and Hui-Min HM Zheng
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2012 Mar;18(3):271-3
Steroid-responsive encephalopathy subsequently associated with Alzheimer’s disease pathology: a case series
Farrah J. Mateen, Keith A. Josephs, Joseph E. Parisi, Daniel A. Drubach, Richard J. Caselli, Kejal Kantarci, Clifford Jack & Bradley F. Boeve
Neurocase – 2012 -Volume 18, Issue 1, pp. 1-12
Hashimoto encephalopathy causing drug-resistant status epilepticus treated with plasmapheresis.
Pediatr Neurol. 2012 Feb;46(2):132-5.
O Bektas, A Yılmaz, T Kendirli, Z Sıklar, G Deda
Many new scientific articles addressing Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy / Steroid Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Thyroiditis were added today (July 21, 2014).
Please click on the “Scientific Research/Articles” tab above to find the citations to the new articles.
The full text of many of these articles is available without charge online. (see links)
Several new scientific articles addressing Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy / Steroid Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Thyroiditis were added today (November 3, 2013).
Please click on the “Scientific Research/Articles” tab above to find the citations to the new articles.
The full text of several of these articles is available without charge online. (see links)