This video from Duke University talks about Autoimmune Encephalitis treatment and outcome. The information in this video can also apply to autoimmune encephalopathies, including therapies such as IVIG. It talks as well about treating symptoms such as seizures and neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Author and former New York Post writer, Susanah Cahalan, was diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. This is an acute inflammation of the brain caused by autoimmunity. This diagnosis may also be considered in a differential diagnosis for HE/SREAT and can share symptoms, such as hallucinations and seizures. Ms. Cahalan’s vivid description of her hallucinations may ring with familiarity to patients diagnosed with HE/SREAT as well.
This video comes form Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance from their Youtube.com channel, Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance.
This video comes from Mayo Clinic’s YouTube page, Mayo Medical Laboratories. Autoimmune Dementia is still a relatively new concept to clinicians. In some studies, HE/SREAT has been referred to as a form of “autoimmune dementia”. This informative video with Dr. Sean Pittock talks about “autoimmune dementia” in general terms. This video may be helpful for those who suffer from dementia associated with HE/SREAT.
The new Dementia Autoimmune Evaluation is now available from Mayo Medical Laboratories. In this video, Sean Pittock, M.D., discusses what providers should know about autoimmune dementia, the testing approach, as well as interpretation and follow-up once the test has been ordered.
This video comes from Mayo Clinic’s YouTube page, Mayo Medical Laboratories.
The new Epilepsy Autoimmune Evaluation is now available from Mayo Medical Laboratories. In this video, Sean Pittock, M.D., discusses what providers should know about autoimmune dementia, the testing approach, as well as interpretation, follow-up and additional considerations once the test has been ordered.
A quick animated video giving a brief overview of autoimmune diseases, their symptoms, and treatment. It is not specific to any one autoimmune condition. This could be informative when beginning to learn about autoimmune disease and helping family and friends get a brief understanding of autoimmunity.
You can also find this video and others about autoimmune diseases on you YouTube.com playlist, “Other Autoimmune Conditions/Symptoms“.
confusion and disorientation
concentration and memory problems
speech difficulties (usually transient)
muscle jerking (myoclonus)
impaired coordination and balance (ataxia)
seizures or seizure-like events
partial paralysis (transient)
In a video hosted by Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance, Dr. Eric Lancaster talks about antibody titers and it’s uses and misuses in autoimmune encephalitis. The 10+ minute video is hosted on AE Alliance’s Vimeo page which can be found at https://vimeo.com/98041998.
Articles on Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Published in 2010
New Daily Persistent Headache As A Presenting Symptom Of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy
Dr. Daniel E Jacome
WebmedCentral NEUROLOGY 2010;1(10):WMC00960
Successful response to intravenous immunoglobulin as rescue therapy in a patient with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.
R. Cornejo, P Venegas, D Goñi, A Salas, and C Romero
BMJ Case Rep. 2010 Dec 29
Paediatric Hashimoto encephalopathy, refractory epilepsy and immunoglobulin treatment – unusual case report and review of the literature
Berger I, Castiel Y, Dor T.
Acta Paediatr. 2010 Dec, 99(12):1903-5.
A series report of autoimmune hypothyroidism associated with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: an under diagnosed clinical entity with good prognosis.
HK Nayak, MK Daga, R Kumar, SK Garg, N Kumar, PK Mohanty PK
BMJ Case Rep. 2010 Nov 23;2010. pii: bcr0120102630.
Hashimoto encephalopathy: clinical and MRI improvement following high-dose corticosteroid therapy.
T Chang, MT Riffsy, PS Gunaratne
Neurologist. 2010 Nov;16(6):394-6.
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy presenting with neurocognitive symptoms: a case report
Carlos Canelo-Aybar, David Loja-Oropeza, Jose Cuadra-Urteaga and Franco Romani-Romani
Journal of Medical Case Reports 2010, 4:337 (October 25, 2010)
Autoimmune dementia: clinical course and predictors of immunotherapy response
Eoin P. Flanagan, MBBCh, Andrew McKeon, MBBCh, Vanda A. Leonnon, MD, PhD, Bradley F. Boeve, MD, Max R. Trenerry, PhD, K. Meng Tan, MD, Daniel A. Drubach, MD, Keith A. Josephs, MD, Jeffrey W. Britton, MD, Jayawant N. Mandrekar, PhD, Val Lowe, MD, Joseph E. Parisi, MD, and Sean J. Pittock, MD.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 October; Volume 85 , Issue 10 pp. 881–897
Electrophysiological tests in a case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy
S Shibayama, A Igaki, M Kuroda, M Honnda, S Fujii, Y Wada, K Inuzumi, M Takeda, M Koshiba
Rinsho Byori. 2010 Oct;58(10):986-9.
Hashimoto encephalopathy with fulminant myocarditis.
M Podberezin, MN Meriggioli, A Locante, A Voros, T Valyi-Nagy, A Kajdacsy-Balla
Pathol Res Pract. 2010 Oct 15;206(10):720-2.
Clinical Reasoning: A 9-year-old girl with seizures and encephalopathy
Thy P. Nguyen and Lisa M. El-Hakam
Neurology. 2010 June 1; 74(22): e97–e100
Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis presenting with late onset depression.
Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2010 Jul;15(3):196-9.
Steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy associated with antithyroid antibodies
J Spinal Cord Med. 2010 June – Volume 33, Issue 3, pp. 278–280.
Recai Turkoglu, MD and Erdem Tuzun, MD
Steroid responsive encephalopathy in cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a case report and review of evidence for immunosuppressive treatment
Raoul P Kloppenborg, Edo Richard, Marieke ES Sprengers, Dirk Troost, Piet Eikelenboom and Paul J Nederkoorn
Journal of Neuroinflammation: 2010 –Volume 7, p. 18
Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with Graves’ disease: clinical manifestations, follow-up, and outcomes
Gianluca Tamagno, Yahya Celik, Rafael Simó, Marcel Dihné, Kazumi Kimura, Giorgio Gelosa, Byung I Lee, Caroline Hommet and Giovanni Murialdo
BMC Neurology: 2010 – 10:27
Hashimoto encephalopathy in a preschool girl.
M. Castro-Gago, C. Gómez-Lado, M. Maneiro-Freire, J. Eirís-Puñal, M. Bravo-Mata
Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Feb;42(2):143-6.
Undetected Hashimoto encephalopathy–a diagnostic challenge in child psychiatry and child neurology.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2010 Jan;38(1):21-7. (German)
Clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria and therapy of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: report of two cases.
Mijajlovic M, Mirkovic M, Dackovic J, Zidverc-Trajkovic, J, Sternic N.
J. Neurol Sci: 2010 January 15; 288(1-2):194-6.
Articles on Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Published in 2011
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in children and adolescents.
I. Erol, S. Saygi, F. Alehan
Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Dec;45(6):420-2.
Recurrent partial seizures with ictal yawning as atypical presentation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis)
S. Casciatoa, C. Di Bonaventuraa, L. Lapentaa, J. Fattoucha, G. Ferrazzanoa, M. Fanellaa, F. Di Fabiob, M. Pasquinib, M.A. Amendoleac, M. Manfredia, d, M. Prencipea, A.T. Giallonardoa
Epilepsy & Behavior – December 2011 – Volume 22, Issue 4, pp.799–803
Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) presenting as depression: a case report.
CY Liu, MC Tseng, PH Lin
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 Nov-Dec;33(6):641.e7-9
Infectious disease or Hashimoto’s encephalopathy flares: a case report.
W Huang, C Xia, M Chatham
Seizure, 2011 Nov;20(9):717-9.
Steroid-responsive encephalopathy in autoimmune thyroiditis: clinical spectrum and MRI observations in three cases
K Dinkar, Sanjib Sinha, AB Taly, PS Bindu, RD Bharath
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology: 2011 – Volume : 14 – Issue : 3, pp. 205-207
Central nervous system vasculitis with positive antithyroid antibodies in an adolescent boy.
Sarah L Tsai, Evan C Lewis, Erick Sell, Sharon Whiting
Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Sep ;45 (3):189-92
Spontaneous Remission of Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in a Patient with Graves’ Disease: A Rare Occurrence in a Rare Clinical Picture
Y Elfaki, D O’Shea, and G Tamagno
Int J Endocrinol Metab. September 2011;9(4):373-6.
Non-convulsive status epilepticus of frontal origin as the first manifestation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.
G Monti, M Pugnaghi, A Ariatti, L Mirandola, G Giovannini, S Scacchetti, P Nichelli, S Meletti
Epileptic Disord. 2011 Sep;13(3):253-8.
Abstract / Full Text Available Free:
Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: Systematic Review of the Literature and an Additional Case
Narriane Chaves P. de Holanda, M.D.; Denise Dantas de Lima, M.D.; Taciana Borges Cavalcanti, M.D.; Cynthia Salgado Lucena, M.D.; Francisco Bandeira, M.D., Ph.D.
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011;23:384-390.
Steroid-responsive encephalopathy and autoimmune thyroiditis in a young boy.
SD Shah, H Murali
Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Aug;45(2):132-4.
Steroid-responsive Hashimoto encephalopathy mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Santoro D, Colombo I, Ghione I, Peverelli L, Bresolin N, Sciacco M, Prelle A.
Neurol Sci. – Aug 2011 – Vol. 32, Issue 4, pp. 719-22
A Methodology for Assessing Treatment Response in Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: A Case Study Demonstrating Repeated Computerized Neuropsychological Testing
Brian L. Brooks, PhD, Karen M. Barlow, MB, ChB, MRCPCH
Journal of Child Neurology June 2011 vol. 26 no. 6 786-791
Recurrent Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, showing spontaneous remission: a case report.
L Li, Zheng FP, Wang G, Li H.
Intern Med. 2011;50(12):1309-12. Epub 2011 Jun 15.
Abstract / Full Text Available Free:
Why the confusion in Hashimoto’s encephalopathy?Bodiabaduge AP Jayasekera, Michael Anthony McShane, Prem Roy,and Geetha AnandBMJ Case Rep. 2011; 2011: bcr0320114020. Published online 2011 June 16.
Progressive impairment of cognition and motor function: Hashimoto encephalopathy
Peter Tzakas and Sze Wan Sit
CMAJ. 2011 May 17; 183(8): E495–E497
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: a long-lasting remission induced by intravenous immunoglobulins.
Drulović J, Andrejević S, Bonaci-Nikolić B, Mijailović V.
Vojnosanit Pregl. 2011 May; Volume 68 – Issue 5 – pp. 452-4
A case of Hashimoto encephalopathy: clinical manifestation, imaging, pathology, treatment, and prognosis.
W Zhao, J Li, J Wang, Y Guo, H Tuo, Z Kang, B Jiang, R Wang, D Wang
Can J Neurol Sci. 2011 May ; 38 (3):404-10
Tremor and Myoclonus Heralding Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy
K. Gücüyener , A. Serdaroğlu, A. Bideci, Y. Yazman, A.S. Soysal, P. Cinaz
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, April 2011, Vol. 13, Issue 8, 1137-1141 (originally published 2000; updated)
Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) or Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: a case and review.
SW Lee, S. Donlon, JP Caplan.
Psychosomatics. 2011 Mar-Apr; Volume 52 – Issue 2 – pp. 99-108.
Time for the endocrinologists to expand their awareness of and contribution to the diagnosis and management of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease.
G Tamagno, G Gaoatswe
Hormones (Athens). 2011 Jan-Mar;10(1):36-8.
Joana Ramalho, and Mauricio Castillo
Radiology Case Reports (Online) 2011;6:445 (January 2011)
Presenile dementia: a case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.
CS Chong, JL Leung, IH Wong, PW Ng, MY Miao
East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;21(1):32-6.
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in the setting of subclinical hypothyroidism
Vasile M Bota, Dominic F Corrigan
International Journal of Case Reports and Images, 2011 – Volume 2 – Issue 4 – pp. 19-22
More precise definition of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease
Acta Paedriactica: Volume 100, Issue 1, pages 5–6, January 2011 (Reader’s Forum)
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Manic Symptoms Associated With Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: Response to Corticosteroid Treatment
Shuai-Ting Lin, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Pinchen Yang, Cheng-Chung Chen
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011;23:E20-E21 (Letter).