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Autoimmune Encephalitis: Treatment and Expected Outcomes

This video from Duke University talks about Autoimmune Encephalitis treatment and outcome. The information in this video can also apply to autoimmune encephalopathies, including therapies such as IVIG. It talks as well about treating symptoms such as seizures and neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Autoimmune Encephalitis: Patient Perspective

Author and former New York Post writer, Susanah Cahalan, was diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. This is an acute inflammation of the brain caused by autoimmunity. This diagnosis may also be considered in a differential diagnosis for HE/SREAT and can share symptoms, such as hallucinations and seizures. Ms. Cahalan’s vivid description of her hallucinations may ring with familiarity to patients diagnosed with HE/SREAT as well.

This video comes form Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance from their channel, Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance.


Dementia Autoimmune Evaluation

This video comes from Mayo Clinic’s YouTube page, Mayo Medical Laboratories. Autoimmune Dementia is still a relatively new concept to clinicians. In some studies, HE/SREAT has been referred to as a form of “autoimmune dementia”. This informative video with Dr. Sean Pittock talks about “autoimmune dementia” in general terms. This video may be helpful for those who suffer from dementia associated with HE/SREAT.

The new Dementia Autoimmune Evaluation is now available from Mayo Medical Laboratories. In this video, Sean Pittock, M.D., discusses what providers should know about autoimmune dementia, the testing approach, as well as interpretation and follow-up once the test has been ordered.


Epilepsy Autoimmune Evaluation

This video comes from Mayo Clinic’s YouTube page, Mayo Medical Laboratories.

The new Epilepsy Autoimmune Evaluation is now available from Mayo Medical Laboratories. In this video, Sean Pittock, M.D., discusses what providers should know about autoimmune dementia, the testing approach, as well as interpretation, follow-up and additional considerations once the test has been ordered.

Autoimmune Diseases – Causes, Symptoms, Treatments & More…

A quick animated video giving a brief overview of autoimmune diseases, their symptoms, and treatment. It is not specific to any one autoimmune condition. This could be informative when beginning to learn about autoimmune disease and helping family and friends get a brief understanding of autoimmunity.

You can also find this video and others about autoimmune diseases on you playlist, “Other Autoimmune Conditions/Symptoms“.


Living with Autoimmune Encephalopathy

This video by Scott Foley, interviews patients and family affected by Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy. This cruel condition effects children and adults alike. Symptoms can be progressive or have a slow, sub-acute onset. These symptoms can include the following:

confusion and disorientation
concentration and memory problems
personality changes
speech difficulties (usually transient)
muscle jerking (myoclonus)
impaired coordination and balance (ataxia)
seizures or seizure-like events
partial paralysis (transient)
sleep abnormalities


Dr. Eric Lancaster discusses The uses and misuses of titers in autoimmune encephalitis

Dr. Eric Lancaster

Dr. Eric Lancaster for AE Alliance

In a video hosted by Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance, Dr. Eric Lancaster talks about antibody titers and it’s uses and misuses in autoimmune encephalitis. The 10+ minute video is hosted on AE Alliance’s Vimeo page which can be found at

Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Articles Published in 2010

Articles on Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Published in 2010

New Daily Persistent Headache As A Presenting Symptom Of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

Dr. Daniel E Jacome

WebmedCentral NEUROLOGY 2010;1(10):WMC00960

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Successful response to intravenous immunoglobulin as rescue therapy in a patient with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.

R. Cornejo, P Venegas, D Goñi, A Salas, and C Romero

BMJ Case Rep. 2010 Dec 29

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Paediatric Hashimoto encephalopathy, refractory epilepsy and immunoglobulin treatment – unusual case report and review of the literature

Berger I, Castiel Y, Dor T.

Acta Paediatr. 2010 Dec,  99(12):1903-5.


A series report of autoimmune hypothyroidism associated with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: an under diagnosed clinical entity with good prognosis.

HK Nayak, MK Daga, R Kumar, SK Garg, N Kumar, PK Mohanty PK

BMJ Case Rep. 2010 Nov 23;2010. pii: bcr0120102630.


Hashimoto encephalopathy: clinical and MRI improvement following high-dose corticosteroid therapy.

T Chang, MT Riffsy, PS Gunaratne

Neurologist. 2010 Nov;16(6):394-6.


Hashimoto’s encephalopathy presenting with neurocognitive symptoms: a case report

Carlos Canelo-Aybar, David Loja-Oropeza, Jose Cuadra-Urteaga and Franco Romani-Romani

Journal of Medical Case Reports 2010, 4:337  (October 25, 2010)

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Autoimmune dementia: clinical course and predictors of immunotherapy response

Eoin P. Flanagan, MBBCh, Andrew McKeon, MBBCh, Vanda A. Leonnon, MD, PhD, Bradley F. Boeve, MD, Max R. Trenerry, PhD, K. Meng Tan, MD, Daniel A. Drubach, MD, Keith A. Josephs, MD, Jeffrey W. Britton, MD, Jayawant N. Mandrekar, PhD, Val Lowe, MD, Joseph E. Parisi, MD, and Sean J. Pittock, MD.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 October; Volume 85 , Issue 10 pp. 881–897

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Electrophysiological tests in a case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy

S Shibayama, A Igaki, M Kuroda, M Honnda, S Fujii, Y Wada, K Inuzumi, M Takeda, M Koshiba

Rinsho Byori. 2010 Oct;58(10):986-9.



Hashimoto encephalopathy with fulminant myocarditis.

M Podberezin, MN Meriggioli, A Locante, A Voros, T Valyi-Nagy, A Kajdacsy-Balla

Pathol Res Pract. 2010 Oct 15;206(10):720-2.



Clinical Reasoning: A 9-year-old girl with seizures and encephalopathy

Thy P. Nguyen and Lisa M. El-Hakam

Neurology. 2010 June 1; 74(22): e97–e100

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Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis presenting with late onset depression.

FA Babtain

Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2010 Jul;15(3):196-9.



Steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy associated with antithyroid antibodies

J Spinal Cord Med. 2010 June – Volume 33, Issue 3, pp. 278–280.

Recai Turkoglu, MD and Erdem Tuzun, MD

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Steroid responsive encephalopathy in cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a case report and review of evidence for immunosuppressive treatment

Raoul P Kloppenborg, Edo Richard, Marieke ES Sprengers, Dirk Troost, Piet Eikelenboom and Paul J Nederkoorn

Journal of Neuroinflammation: 2010  –Volume 7, p. 18

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Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with Graves’ disease: clinical manifestations, follow-up, and outcomes

Gianluca Tamagno, Yahya Celik, Rafael Simó, Marcel Dihné, Kazumi Kimura, Giorgio Gelosa, Byung I Lee, Caroline Hommet and Giovanni Murialdo

BMC Neurology: 2010 – 10:27

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Hashimoto encephalopathy in a preschool girl.

M. Castro-Gago, C. Gómez-Lado, M. Maneiro-Freire, J. Eirís-Puñal, M. Bravo-Mata

Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Feb;42(2):143-6.


Undetected Hashimoto encephalopathy–a diagnostic challenge in child psychiatry and child neurology.

R Voll

Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2010 Jan;38(1):21-7. (German)


Clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria and therapy of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: report of two cases.

Mijajlovic M, Mirkovic M, Dackovic J, Zidverc-Trajkovic, J, Sternic N.

J. Neurol Sci: 2010 January 15; 288(1-2):194-6.






Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Articles Published in 2011

Articles on Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Published in 2011

Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in children and adolescents.

I. Erol, S. Saygi, F. Alehan

Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Dec;45(6):420-2.


Recurrent partial seizures with ictal yawning as atypical presentation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis)

S. Casciatoa, C. Di Bonaventuraa, L. Lapentaa, J. Fattoucha, G. Ferrazzanoa, M. Fanellaa, F. Di Fabiob, M. Pasquinib, M.A. Amendoleac, M. Manfredia, d, M. Prencipea, A.T. Giallonardoa

Epilepsy & Behavior – December 2011 – Volume 22, Issue 4, pp.799–803


Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) presenting as depression: a case report.

CY Liu, MC Tseng, PH Lin

Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 Nov-Dec;33(6):641.e7-9


Infectious disease or Hashimoto’s encephalopathy flares: a case report.

W Huang, C Xia, M Chatham

Seizure, 2011 Nov;20(9):717-9.


Steroid-responsive encephalopathy in autoimmune thyroiditis: clinical spectrum and MRI observations in three cases

K Dinkar, Sanjib Sinha, AB Taly, PS Bindu, RD Bharath

Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology: 2011  – Volume : 14  –  Issue : 3, pp. 205-207

Full Text:;year=2011;volume=14;issue=3;spage=205;epage=207;aulast=Dinkar

Central nervous system vasculitis with positive antithyroid antibodies in an adolescent boy.

Sarah L Tsai, Evan C Lewis, Erick Sell, Sharon Whiting

Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Sep ;45 (3):189-92


Spontaneous Remission of Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in a Patient with Graves’ Disease: A Rare Occurrence in a Rare Clinical Picture

Y Elfaki, D O’Shea, and G Tamagno

Int J Endocrinol Metab. September 2011;9(4):373-6.

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Non-convulsive status epilepticus of frontal origin as the first manifestation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.

G Monti, M Pugnaghi, A Ariatti, L Mirandola, G Giovannini, S Scacchetti, P Nichelli, S Meletti

Epileptic Disord. 2011 Sep;13(3):253-8.

Abstract / Full Text Available Free:

Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: Systematic Review of the Literature and an Additional Case

Narriane Chaves P. de Holanda, M.D.; Denise Dantas de Lima, M.D.; Taciana Borges Cavalcanti, M.D.; Cynthia Salgado Lucena, M.D.; Francisco Bandeira, M.D., Ph.D.

The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011;23:384-390.

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Steroid-responsive encephalopathy and autoimmune thyroiditis in a young boy.

SD Shah, H Murali

Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Aug;45(2):132-4.


Steroid-responsive Hashimoto encephalopathy mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Santoro D, Colombo I, Ghione I, Peverelli L, Bresolin N, Sciacco M, Prelle A.

Neurol Sci. – Aug 2011 – Vol. 32, Issue 4, pp. 719-22


A Methodology for Assessing Treatment Response in Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: A Case Study Demonstrating Repeated Computerized Neuropsychological Testing

Brian L. Brooks, PhD, Karen M. Barlow, MB, ChB, MRCPCH

Journal of Child Neurology June 2011 vol. 26 no. 6 786-791



Recurrent Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, showing spontaneous remission: a case report.

L Li, Zheng FP, Wang G, Li H.

Intern Med. 2011;50(12):1309-12. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

Abstract / Full Text Available Free:

Why the confusion in Hashimoto’s encephalopathy?

Bodiabaduge AP Jayasekera, Michael Anthony McShane, Prem Roy,and Geetha Anand
BMJ Case Rep. 2011; 2011: bcr0320114020. Published online 2011 June 16.
Full text at:


Progressive impairment of cognition and motor function: Hashimoto encephalopathy

Peter Tzakas and Sze Wan Sit

CMAJ. 2011 May 17; 183(8): E495–E497

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Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: a long-lasting remission induced by intravenous immunoglobulins.

Drulović J, Andrejević S, Bonaci-Nikolić B, Mijailović V.

Vojnosanit Pregl. 2011 May; Volume 68 – Issue 5 – pp. 452-4


A case of Hashimoto encephalopathy: clinical manifestation, imaging, pathology, treatment, and prognosis.

W Zhao, J Li, J Wang, Y Guo, H Tuo, Z Kang, B Jiang, R Wang, D Wang

Can J Neurol Sci. 2011 May ; 38 (3):404-10


Tremor and Myoclonus Heralding Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

K. Gücüyener , A. Serdaroğlu, A. Bideci, Y. Yazman, A.S. Soysal, P. Cinaz

Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, April 2011, Vol. 13, Issue 8, 1137-1141 (originally published 2000; updated)

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Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) or Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: a case and review.

SW Lee, S. Donlon, JP Caplan.

Psychosomatics. 2011 Mar-Apr; Volume 52 – Issue 2 – pp. 99-108.


Time for the endocrinologists to expand their awareness of and contribution to the diagnosis and management of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease.

G Tamagno, G Gaoatswe

Hormones (Athens). 2011 Jan-Mar;10(1):36-8.

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Hashimoto’s encephalopathy

Joana Ramalho, and Mauricio Castillo

Radiology Case Reports (Online) 2011;6:445 (January 2011)

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Presenile dementia: a case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy.

CS Chong, JL Leung, IH Wong, PW Ng, MY Miao

East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;21(1):32-6.

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Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in the setting of subclinical hypothyroidism

Vasile M Bota, Dominic F Corrigan

International Journal of Case Reports and Images, 2011 – Volume 2 – Issue 4 – pp. 19-22

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More precise definition of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease

Itai Berger

Acta Paedriactica: Volume 100, Issue 1, pages 5–6, January 2011 (Reader’s Forum)

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Manic Symptoms Associated With Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: Response to Corticosteroid Treatment

Shuai-Ting Lin, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Pinchen Yang, Cheng-Chung Chen

The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011;23:E20-E21 (Letter).

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AE Alliance
"The Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance promotes collaboration to improve care, find a cure and create community so that no one faces autoimmune encephalitis alone.

The Encephalitis Society
"The Encephalitis Society is an International organization providing information and support for all causes of Encephalitis."

Encephalitis Global
"Encephalitis Global is a U.S.A. 501(c)(3) non-profit organization formed in 2005 as an alliance connecting encephalitis survivors and caregivers around the world."

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Contact a Family
"For families with disabled children."

Madison's Foundation Provides information about rare diseases and connects parents whose children have the same rare disease.

NIH Health Hotline
Toll-free numbers from the National Library of Medicine's Health Hotlines Database.

HE Notebook - Wordpress Site
A great blog of an HE patient with a trove of information, personal stories, and links to medical studies.